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Conversion Efficiency Rankings: TOPCon, HJT, BC Batteries Up to 26.5%

published: 2024-04-10 17:04

The PERC cell is approaching the theoretical maximum efficiency of 24.5%, with newer generation N-type cell technologies such as TOPCon, HJT, and BC rapidly replacing its mainstream status.

Currently, the average mass production efficiency of TOPCon, HJT, and BC batteries is all above 25%, with the highest reaching 26.80% (BC route) and 26.50% (TOPCon route).

Figure :Certified Efficiency Rankings of TOPCon, HJT, and BC Batteries

Based on publicly available information from various cell and module manufacturers, among the three major N-type cell technology routes, the BC cell leans towards "niche", with the highest efficiency. Golden Solar New Energy reported a figure of 27.42%, while Aiko Solar's ABC cell achieves a mass production efficiency of up to 26.8%.

In terms of certified efficiency, Longi Green Energy's HPBC cell has the highest certified efficiency, reaching 27.09%, setting a world record. Aiko Solar follows closely, with its ABC cell certified at a maximum efficiency of 27%. As for module efficiency, Aiko Solar's ABC has achieved a maximum efficiency of 25.15%, setting a world record for the highest efficiency globally.

In terms of expansion trends, the TOPCon cell technology route tends to be more "mainstream", appearing as the "dream lover" of leading manufacturers. Over 70% of the global top 10 module shippers such as JA Solar, Jinko Solar, Tongwei Solar, CSI , Trina Solar, DAS Energy, and Astronergy are involved in TOPCon.

Due to PERC technology upgrades, Longi Green Energy, which primarily promotes BC technology, has also initiated 30GW of TOPCon cell production. Recently,  Aiko Solar announced the complete upgrade of its 25GW PERC production line in Yiwu to TOPCon, while Risen Energy, which favors HJT, also shifted its focus to TOPCon.

In terms of certifiedefficiency, according to the National Photovoltaic Industry Metrology Testing Center (NPVM), JA Solar's TOPCon efficiency has reached 26.89%, setting a world record. The second-highest certified is from Zhonglai Corporation, with its certified at 26.7%.

Other companies with certified or pilot line efficiencies exceeding 26% include Yingfa Solar (26.61%), Q-SOLAR (26.50%), Maxeon Technology (26.07%), and Zhonghuan New Energy (26.06%).

As for the average mass production efficiency of TOPCon batteries, it ranges from 25% to 26.5%, with the median around 25.5%, precisely 1% higher than PERC's maximum efficiency.

It is noted that among the 27 TOPCon manufacturers, only Longi Green Energy and Runergy have marked mass production efficiencies of 25% and above. The remaining 25 manufacturers all have efficiencies above 25.5%, with three manufacturers explicitly stating mass production rates above 26%, namely Daheng Energy (26.5%), Huadong Solar Energy (26.10%), and Q-SOLAR (the highest mass production  efficiency at 26.10%), all of which are second-tier manufacturers or new players.

Relatively speaking, N-type TOPCon leading manufacturers such as JA Solar, Jinko Solar, DAS Solar, and Tongwei Solar are more modest and low-key. JA Solar stated during its performance briefing that the mass production efficiency of TOPCon ranges from 25.6% to 25.7%, with a target efficiency of 26.5% in 2024.

Jinko Solar's Bycium+ based on TOPCon technology has a maximum mass production efficiency of 26%, with an average mass production efficiency expected to be around 25.8%. Tongwei Solar disclosed that the mass production efficiency of its TNC cell is 26%. DAS Solar introduced that its TOPCon 4.0 cell technology has a maximum mass production efficiency of 26.0%, with an estimated average mass production efficiency of around 25.8%. Specialized TOPCon cell cell manufacturer Drinda New Energy has an average mass production efficiency of 25.8%, while another globally top 5 shipper SolarSpace has a mass production conversion efficiency of 25.7%.

According to public information, Trina Solar's i-TOPCon has a mass production efficiency ranging from 25.3% to 25.8%, and ATS's TOPCon cell has an average mass production efficiency of 25.6%.

In terms of HJT cell mass production efficiency, the two leading manufacturers, HUASUN and Risen Energy, are equally matched at 25.8%. In its semi-annual report, Akcome Solar disclosed that the average mass production efficiency of its HJT cell is between 25.3% and 25.5%, with a target of reaching 25.6%-25.7% by the end of 2023. The mass productionefficiency disclosed by Jingang Solar and GRAND SUNERGY is both 25.6%, while Leascend Technology and BOAMAX TECHNOLOGIES are relatively low-key. The former accurately specifies the figure to two decimal places, ranging from 25.03% to 25.47%, and the latter is above 25%.

Figure :Mass production Efficiency Rankings of TOPCon, HJT, and BC Batteries

Source: Grassroots PV.

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