Perovskite has emerged as a pivotal focus within the realm of next-generation photovoltaic cell technology, largely attributed to its remarkable attributes of high conversion efficiency and potential cost reduction. Forecasts underscore the potential of perovskite cells to supplant silicon counterparts, casting them as the future gemstone within battery technology.
The progression of perovskite cell efficiency has been nothing short of remarkable, ascending from a modest 3.8% to an impressive 25.7% within a span of 12 years since its inception in 2009. By comparison, the journey for silicon cells to elevate their efficiency from 5% to the current 26.81% spanned over 60 years, nearing the theoretical pinnacle of 29.4%. In stark contrast, the theoretical upper limit for perovskite cell efficiency can ascend to an impressive 33%, with tandem cells poised to exceed the 50% threshold, illuminating a vast realm of potential. Moreover, the dependency of perovskite crystals on glass substrates underscores the extensive scope for scalable advancement. Overall, perovskite cell technology is primed to emerge as the preeminent technological trajectory of the future, alongside, and potentially surpassing, existing technologies like TOPCon and HJT.
A multitude of advantages are continually amplifying the competitiveness of perovskite cells. Its merits encompass material efficiency, process temperature, preparation complexity, environmental sustainability, initial investment, and production costs, among others. Remarkably, its temperature coefficient rests at a mere -0.001% / ℃, yielding higher power generation compared to silicon counterparts. The production process can be precisely managed within 45 minutes, with a minute single-unit consumption of just 0.5 grams.
The investment outlay for perovskite modules stands at approximately 500 million RMB/GW, a noteworthy economy in contrast to the traditional polysilicon, wafer, cell, and module investment of 1.1 billion RMB/GW.
Perovskite’s energy recovery period is an impressive 0.35 years, coupled with a greenhouse gas emission factor of 10.7g CO2-eq/kWh, amounting to just 23% and 43% respectively, of that attributed to silicon-based cells. With these multiple advantages complementing its wide applicability in Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) and mobile energy, perovskite asserts a stronger market competitiveness.
Continuous strides in cost reduction and efficiency enhancement remain a focal point. Under the existing silicon IEC61215 test standard, perovskite attains comparable levels. Projections from the CPIA anticipate square-meter scale perovskite efficiency to reach 17-19% in 2023 and escalate to 25% by 2030. Cost management for a 100MW production line aims at 1.0-1.5 yuan / W, with the expectation that GW production line costs will lower to 0.8 yuan / W, and eventually, a 10GW production line will reach 0.6 yuan / W. This progressive trajectory in industrialization, bolstered by effective cost reduction and efficiency enhancement, bodes well for the promising future of perovskite.
The upstream Perovskite industry chain is poised to reap enduring benefits.
The Perovskite industry chain encompasses pivotal components:
1. Equipment: Coating, laser, and spray coating equipment stand as the core apparatuses.
2. Target Material: Versatile application for the TCO layer, hole transport layer, and electron transport layer in perovskite and tandem solar cells.
3. TCO Glass: A substantial portion, accounting for 33.7%, of the total cost attributed to perovskite cells.